World Environment Day and Stockholm Conference

Introduction

Every year 5th June is celebrated as world environment day. It is the biggest international day for the environment. Led by United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP) is the largest global platform for environmental public outreach.

When did the movement actually start?

 .1972- June (5-16)-1st major conference on environmental issues convened under United Nations in Stockholm(Sweden) known as UNs conference on Human Environment or Stockholm Conference

 .1972-December 15-United Nations General Assembly(UNGA) adopted resolution designating 5th June as World Environment Day.

 .1972-december 15-UNGA adopted another resolution that created United Nations Environment Programme(UNEP)

Stockholm Conference in Brief

  .Stockholm declaration contained 26 principles where environmental issues were at the top positions.

  .It was the starting of dialogue between developed and developing countries

The action plan for the conference can be categorised as follows-

  1. Global Environment Assessment Programme
  2. Environment Management Activity
  3. International Measures to support assessment & Management Activity          

These categories were again divided into 109 recommendation

26 Principles of Stockholm Conference in Brief

Principle 1: Right and responsibility to protect and improve the environment for the present and future generation

  All forms of discrimination and oppression in case of the environment must be eliminated

Principle 2: Safeguarding natural resources for future  generation

   Proper planning and management are needed to safeguard the natural resources

Principle 3: Duty to preserve renewable resources

  Earth’s capacity to regenerate must be maintained by proper & scientific use.

Principle 4: Duty to conserve wildlife & its habitat

  The inclusion of wildlife conservation in economic planning gives a boost to this

Principle 5: Duty to preserve the non-renewable resources

   It is very important to conserve non-renewable resources because these are exhaustible

Principle 6: Pollution control

  Excess amounts of any chemical detrimental to the environment are called a pollutant. People’s struggle against all forms of pollution must be supported by govt.

Principle 7: Oceanic pollution must be prevented

  Govt should take all measure to prevent oceanic pollution as it contains a vast number of marine flora & fauna.

Principle 8: Economic & social Development

  These are necessary for a better living and working environment. In developing countries, lower economic and social development is a barrier to environmental management.

Principle 9: Assistance to developing countries

    Financial and technical help can reduce the environmental deficiencies created by underdevelopment and natural disaster.

Principle 10: Stability in price & earning in developing countries

  A stable economy with a proper or reasonable price rate is easy to formulate any financial policy-making for environmental management.

Principle 11: Progressive environmental policies

  Environmental policies should be progressive so that they can not restrict or adversely affect developing countries. Developing countries are economically weak so they affect very much in slight policy changes.

Principle 12: Additional technical & financial assistance to developing countries.

  On request from the developing countries developed countries should arrange the assistance

Principle 13: Rational management of resources

  The state should adopt a method to manage the resource & to improve the environment

Principle 14: Planning to resolve development vs conservation

   Now development and conservation must go hand in hand. Environment management can do this properly.

Principle 15: Planning for human settlement and Urbanization

  Planned settlement and urbanization can reduce the adverse impact of the environment, natural calamities etc.

Principle 16: Population control

  Areas of excessive population /high population growth rate are prone to adverse effects on the environment. The state can take all measures to control the population to restore a balance population resource mechanism

Principle 17: Establishment of a national institution

  These institutes are entrusted with the task of planning, managing and controlling the environmental resources

Principle 18: Application of science & technology

  S&T gives solutions to almost all fields of life now, so, it can be beneficial to use it in environmental issues also

Principle 19: Environmental education to all sections of people

  Specially school-going children and college students propagate the environment education maximum. Environmental education can sensitize the burning environmental problem. Mass media can do a lot in this regard

Principle 20:Reseach & development in the environment

  Research and development in environmental issues must be promoted in all countries, especially in developing countries. The free flow of up-to-date scientific information and successful experiences must be supported.

Principle 21: The state must not violate international law when exploiting its natural resources

  A country exploits its natural resources by its own law but that law must not violate any international law or harm any other nation’s interest

Principle 22: Compensation to the victim

   Govt.s must come closer and formulate international law for compensating the victim country

Principle 23: Each nation should establish its own standard

  Countries should set goals considering the values prevailing in that country

Principle 24: Cooperative spirit among all nation

  International cooperation is highly expected in international environment improvement by bilateral or multilateral agreements. States can control, prevent & reduce risk through cooperative work.

Principle 25: Role of an international organisation

 States should ensure the activity of international organisations in case of environmental work.

Principle 26: Ban on weapons of mass destruction(ex. nuclear)

The state should try its maximum level to reach the present agreement on the elimination or complete destruction of such weapons.

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